This article is related to the topic of (i) Dimensions of Communication and (ii) Medium of Communication…
Dimensions of Communication
The formal channel of communication flows information in different directions. They work as a multi-dimensional. The dimensions or directions of communication are as follows:
- Downward communication.
- Upward communication.
- Horizontal communication.
- Diagonal communication.
1. Downward communication:
Downward communication means to flow of information from top to lower levels of the business management hierarchy. Information flows from top-level of authority to the bottom-level of employees or individuals through various levels.
Downward communication can be two types oral or written. Oral communication is done through face to face interaction, speeches, meetings or telephones. Written communication is done through handbooks, letters, posters, bulletins, pamphlets, annual reports, and so on.
2. Upward communication:
Upward communication helps to flows the information from lower-level individuals to upper-level individuals. Employees provide information to our directors and instruction through upward communication. This flow of communication is better where the participative or democratic style of management is frequent.
Matters like subordinates’ work-related problems, ideas, opinions, suggestions, feelings, about their seniors and co-workers, etc. flow through upward communication.
Upward communication can take adjust through media like meetings, appeals, suggestions, grievance procedures, open-door policies, questionnaires, group discussions or meetings, and so on.
3. Horizontal communication:
Horizontal communication is also known as lateral communication. It flows or transfers our information to those people who are working at the same level or position. It is the interaction between peer groups. It transfers communication with people at the same level.
Most common lateral communication happens amongst functional heads like production manager and sales manager interact with each other to coordinate sales with production schedules.
Horizontal communication can be two types oral or written. Oral communication provides information to individuals of the same level- when they interact during after office hours, tea break, lunch break, and conferences. Written communication takes place through memos, reports, boards, bulletins and so on.
4. Diagonal communication:
Diagonal communication is also known as cross-wise communication. It flows or transfers information amongst individuals of different departments at different levels. When regional sales manager talks to workers of production or finance department, diagonal communication is said to have taken place.
It also helps to increase the efficiency and speed of work. People can directly talk to each other without any problem.
Diagonal communication can be two types of oral and written. Oral communication happens in meetings, lectures, conferences, and so on and written communication takes place through notices, magazines, boards, circulars, etc.
Medium of Communication
The medium of communication or communication medium is a set of symbols through which the sender and receiver create a common understanding of the subject. These symbols can be in the form of non-verbal expressions or words (oral or written).
It can be categorized into two parts like:
- Verbal Communication
- Non-Verbal Communication.
1. Verbal Communication:
Verbal communication is the type through which we can communicate through words. We use targeted words to share feelings, thoughts, and ideas with others. In this communication, the sender has to speak the words in a proper way so that the other person can understand and reply to them. Words can be both oral or written.
When information is sent through oral words, it is called oral communication and when they are sent through written words, it is called written communication. It can be classified into two forms:
(a) Oral Communication:
Oral communication means a transfer of messages through spoken words. Most of the communication is used in the form of orally. When people interact with each other, they talk face to face and share their thoughts and feelings.
The way we talk reflects our background, personality, education, and relationship with the listener. Oral communication is used by choice, nature of information, and situation.
(b) Written Communication:
Written communication transfers messages, documentary proofs, ideas, feelings, and thoughts in writing in the form of circulars, notices, letters, manuals, etc.
2. Non-Verbal Communication:
Non-verbal communication uses gestures and facial expressions to communicate with someone because we do not communicate through words alone. A word of praise can motivate employees to do things that oral or written instructions cannot.
It helps to transfer the messages through audio-visuals signals and body movements. It also helps to understand the emotional and mental state of the sender and receiver, attitudes, and behavior of people helps to improve the communication.
It can be categorized into four parts:
- Body language
- Sign language
- Space language.
(i) Body language:
Body language is related to the language of the body. It is the technique our body communicates through its parts. Our eyes, face, gesture, posture, etc. reflect our emotions, attitudes, feelings, moods, etc. Body language facilitates non-verbal communication in the following ways:
- Facial expression
- Body shape.
(ii) Para Language:
Para language is also known as ‘like language‘. It indicates how a particular speaker speaks. ‘Sorry’ said with a happy face and ‘Thanks’ said with a sad face do not convey the right meaning. Nervousness, sarcasm, criticism, calmness, anger, joy, etc. are reflected through pith and tone of the voice.
Para language facilitates non-verbal communication in the following ways:
- Proper stress on words
- Mixed signals.
(iii) Sign language:
Signs indicate symbols that convey approx 50 percent of what we want to say. Sign language is a type of non-verbal form of communication where the sender transfers messages through symbols. It can be of the following types:
- Visual signs
- Audio signs.
(iv) Space language:
Study of communication through space around us is known as proxemics or space language. Say, we are standing four feet away from our superiors and communicating with him.
Space language facilitates non-verbal communication in the following ways:
- Intimate space language
- Personal space language
- Social space language
- Public space language.
I hope you have cleared all the aspect of (i) Dimensions of Communication and (ii) Medium of Communication…