Read this article to understand the features, characteristics, process, importance, and principles of delegation in management…
Features or Characteristics of Delegation
The features of the delegation are also known as characteristics of delegation and it includes various points such as:-
1. Delegation is a process:
Delegation is the process by which the managers or the superiors can transfer our powers, authorities, and responsibilities to our subordinates or juniors. It can be followed into various process or steps such as:-
- Determine the goals.
2. Necessary activity:
Managers never avoid the process of delegation because they cannot perform all the tasks and works themselves. They always try to learn the art of delegation i.e., what to delegate and how to delegate. Corporate performance is managed by how well superiors get the work done by the steps of delegation.
It is not an option. It is very necessary for all managers.
3. On-going process:
A delegation is a form of continuous process. Managers continue to delegate their tasks and work to the subordinates to reduce their working efforts. This also helps to achieve organizational objectives or goals.
4. It is an art, not a science:
Delegation does not mean that juniors will perform those works well. There is no cause and effect relationship between the actual performance and their task assigned.
Thus, delegation is not a science. It is a theme of the art of how well and what the superiors delegate to subordinates.
5. Different forms:
Delegation can be categorized into different forms like:
- Top to the bottom delegation.
- Lateral delegation.
- Bottom to the top delegation.
Process of Delegation-
The process of delegation in management or the business includes various points such as:-
1. Determine the objectives:
The superiors establish the objectives of the position so that the individual at that position knows what is expected of him. If delegation is started form the sales department, the objective should be made clear, sales expansion or sales promotion.
All types of business activities are goal oriented. If every individual knows it responsibility regarding how and what work has to contribute the goal, then delegation will automatically effective.
Responsibility is the factor in which the managers provide jobs to the individuals for introducing the responsible guidelines towards them. It also defines their relationship with the managers to whom they are accountable and juniors to whom they can give instructions.
When a job is provided to a person, then the authority is also provided with their job because authority is only a factor through which we can easily fulfill the responsibility.
Authority defines the right of juniors to further give instructions to carry out the assigned responsibilities.
The duty of the manager is not limited to delegation authority and responsibility. He motivates their employees or subordinates to do their work with zeal and excitement. They used two factors (financial and non-financial incentives) for providing the motivation for our juniors.
Financial incentives include money and wealth but non-financial incentives include decision-making power, recognition, etc.
After giving the authorities and responsibilities, a few subordinates may not be able to effectively run their delegated tasks and work. So, to cure these shortcomings, the managers organize the event of training programmes to enhance their employee’s knowledge and skills.
After all the programmes, the managers match the performance of subordinates. They help to coordinate their activities with the goals of the organization and also control all the business activities (whether it is insider or outsider).
Whatever the performance of delegation, superiors constantly observe the activities of juniors, analyze their progress and provide necessary guidance. This is a type of management philosophy whereby persons are liable for how well they use their powers and how well co-ordinate their organizational work effectively.
Importance of Delegation-
The importance of delegation in management or the business includes various points such as:-
1. Relax to managers:
Delegation provides relaxation to our managers of the burden to carry out every activity on their own. By delegating business activities to lower levels, the top manager can also concentrate on other policy matters. This helps to lead the efficiency of the organization.
2. Better decisions:
In the delegation process, the decision-making process is taken by those persons who are very close to their decision-making situation. This increases the efficiency and quality of decisions.
3. Develops managers:
By delegating responsibility and authority to juniors, managers can accept more and extra responsibilities form the superiors or high-level managers. By reducing more responsibilities down the hierarchy, they can accept more challenging projects and also enhance their skills.
4. Develops subordinates:
A manager transfers his routine and tasks to a subordinate so that he can learn the work and increase his/her efficiency to do this work. The managers also organize the training progarammes to increase their performance of work.
5. Faster decisions:
Decisions should not be effective, they should also be fast so that if subordinates have to take a decision in a difficult situation, then he should not get permission from superior first. They should have so much power that he can take the decisions.
6. Promotes Inter-personal relationship:
Delegation helps to increase the interaction of managers with their subordinates and creates or promotes healthy relationship environment amongst them.
Principles of Delegation-
The principles of delegation in management or the business include various points such as:-
1. Authority, Responsibility, and Accountability:
Authority is a type of power through which the managers can issue the instructions to our subordinates or juniors who are working in the organization.
Responsibility is a type of duty or task which is assigned by another person to do something.
Accountability is a type of liability which is created for the use of authority. It is the responsibility for the performance of the assigned duties.
2. Parity of authority and responsibility:
Subordinates need authority to fulfill the actions of responsibility. Authority is a power whose main obligation is to issue the instructions.
Authority without responsibility and responsibility without authority is like an empty glass of water i.e., means nothing.
3. Unity of command:
There is a boss on every individual person who submits all reports to them. If subordinate has more than one manager then he will not be able to do his job properly because at one time a man can only listen to one person and accept him.
So, that’s why unity of command say that to follow one person at one time.
4. Scalar chain:
In the scalar chain, every person knows himself on which position he is, what is his powers, what is his responsibilities, etc.
It determines the direct authority relationship between the seniors and the juniors. It also promotes effective and fast-moving decisions.
5. Completeness of delegation:
Every piece of part of the total work should be transferred down the scalar chain. If some part of work does not transfer, then it will become a gap and then it will not be able to work properly.
6. Delegation by results:
The managers have to determine their goals of delegation, i.e., he divides what they want from their juniors and then they transfer their powers and responsibilities.
If a sales manager wants to increase sales of the southern branch, he should delegate or transfer this task to his branch manager, Southern Region.
So, I think you have understood the features, characteristics, process, importance, and principles of delegation…