Read this article to understand the topic of (i) Meaning of Job Analysis, (ii) Importance of Job Analysis, and (iii) Process of Job Analysis…
Meaning of Job Analysis
Job analysis is the aggregation of two words- job and analysis. Job is a combination or integration of one or more functions which a worker carries to earn his living. The job explains the contents to a particular task and not its location.
The famous author says, “Job is the collection of tasks, duties, and responsibilities which are assigned to an individual and different to other works anyhow allotted”. And, the analysis is assumed a procedure of deep examination.
Therefore, we can say that job analysis is an intensive, systematic, and direct method of obtaining information about a job or rather it is the process of studying the job. It involves the separation of the job.
Uses / Importance of Job Analysis
The importance of job analysis in human resource management or an organization includes various points like:
1. Organizational and Human Resource Planning:
Job analysis is a type of qualitative aspect of human resource requirements. It explains the duties and responsibilities and then translates them into personal attributes, traits, abilities, and skills.
It also helps in determining the number and types of jobs and qualification needed to fill these jobs because with the help of job analysis it is known that whatever the load of the task which an average individual can do on the job on a particular day.
It provides jobs with the proper division of work.
2. Recruitment, Selection, and Placement:
It is important to have a clear list of skills and works to be performed and knowledge to be controlled for that to make any employment scheme successful. The information regarding these two is obtained from job specification and job description respectively.
It helps to match the job requirement with the employee’s abilities, attitudes, interests to perform the employment programme.
3. Training & Development:
To perform the tasks assigned to the workers effectively and efficiently, training & development schemes require special initiative. These schemes or progarmmes help workers to acquire the required quantity of skill and knowledge which will be applied further during the job.
And, if the workers fully understand the job analysis, they will be able to perform their duties effectively and quickly will full or optimum efficiency because they will know what they are expected to perform.
4. Job Evaluation:
Job evaluation is a systematic process for measuring the relative value and importance of occupation on the basis of their similar factors like training, skill, and efforts for the purpose of explaining wages and salaries differentials.
Job analysis gives worthful information concerning the job.
5. Performance Appraisal:
Performance appraisal is an impartial and systematic assessment of an employee’s performance on the assigned job, with a view to discovering how or worse or well the job is being performed by him/her and also unearthing his/her capacity for further development.
Job analysis also helps performance appraisal by providing necessary information while comparing the actual contribution of two individuals.
6. Job Design:
Job design consists of the decisions based on various features like the degree of specialization required, job contents, and work environment in the business organization. It also helps superiors carry out job analysis and develop job specifications.
Job analysis helps in designing the job by industrial engineers engaged in work simplification, work-study, and workplace improvement methods.
7. Safety & Health:
Job analysis also protects such opportunity that identifies and uncover those unhealthy environmental factors and hazards which generally remain undiscussed or unidentified.
Corrective measures can be taken to reduce the chances of various risks, avoid unhealthy conditions, and ensure the safety of workers.
Process of Job Analysis
The process of procedure of job analysis is an expert’s or experienced job. It requires knowledge and skills. Some big industrial houses or the organization which requires job-analysis process time to time, appoint a full-time job-analyst. The process of job analysis in human resource management (hrm) is as given under:
Collection of Statistical Information
Filling up of Job Description Forms
Preparation of Job Specification statement
1. Collection of Statistical Information:
This is the primary stage in the process of job analysis. The collection of statistical information can be done by a number of modes. The selection of mode depends upon the availability, need, and type of data. Important modes are as given below…
(i) Questionnaire Method:
In this method, a separate questionnaire is prepared for each job. As the name of the method reflects, it involves a number of questions related to the job. It also includes a job analyst who collects the information from the such filled in questionnaire sheets keeping in view the motive of the job analysis.
(ii) Interview Method:
This method involves some questions to be asked by a selected and defined population i.e., workers, having common attributes. This method promises completeness, accuracy and optimum utilization of time.
(iii) Observation Method:
This method is the most authentic and commonly used. In this method, the main challenge is t0 observe the employees while they are at work. If they become purposive about the observation, the open reaction can not be collected.
(iv) Record Method:
In this type of method, data collection is done from the records managed by the human resource department (HRD). This is also not an exact or purposeful method. It also gives confusion. Records can never provide full details or the required details.
(v) Technical Conference:
At the time of technical meetings or by arranging them, useful information is collected from talented or experienced supervisors and other staff employees. The job analyst initiates discussions and assembles detailed information about the job.
2. Filling up of Job Description Forms:
When important information is collected, the job analyst fills this information in a statement called job-description form. Job-description form provides information as and when required.
Job description form includes various points like:
- Job Title
- Code No.
- Supervised by
- Job Analyst approval
3. Preparation of Job Specification Statement:
Job specification statement is a type of summary of the job specifications important for performing the inclusive tasks. Job specification statement is categorized into two big parts:
- One, work-introductions
- Two, worker-introductions
The Pro-forma of job specification statement is as given below…
4. Report Writing:
Report writing is the fourth stage in the process of job analysis. Job analyst has to prepare a valid report which includes the various activities of the job and the qualities of a person to be placed on the job.
So, such a valid report is presented for the final approval of the seniors and the labor union. In the case of suggestions or tips, concrete alternations have to be made.
Approval is the final stage of the job analysis procedure. Approval format is prepared to be presented to the top management and labor unions.
After approval, it becomes the final draft of a report.